Uolter Gilbert

 American molecular biologist Walter Gilbert was born in Boston (Massachusetts), in the family of Richard Gilbert, an economist Keynesian persuasion that from 1924 to 1939. taught at Harvard University, and Emma Gilbert (nee Cohen), a child psychologist, who gave her two children home primary education. When he was seven years old, he and his family moved to Washington, DC (DC). During the Second World War, his father worked in the Office of control over prices. Studying in public schools of Washington and later in high school " Sidvelovskih friends", G. had already expressed interest in the scientific activity. After completing secondary school in 1949, he entered Harvard University, specializing mainly in the field of physics.

In 1953He finished it with distinction, and that same year married the poet Caelian Stone. They have two children. G. remained at Harvard University to carry out the thesis in physics and in 1954 received a master`s degree.He then moved to England at Cambridge University and worked there as a PhD candidate under the supervision of the Abdus Salam over the output of mathematical formulas that allow to predict the dispersion of elementary particles.

At Cambridge, he met with Mr. James D. Watson and Francis Crick, is engaged in research of the open sequence in 1953, the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) - the cellular carrier of genetic information for the synthesis of proteins. Proteins, not only by regenerative cells and the hormones and enzymes involved in this process are composed of amino acids.In accordance with the model Watson - Crick DNA helix consists of structural elements of the chain, called nucleotides, each of which carries one of the four bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). Hereditary carrier, or the genetic code of each amino acid, encrypted by three bases and is the instruction to connect the amino acids in the formation of a specific protein.

After receiving his doctorate in mathematics in 1957 in Cambridge, he returned to Harvard, where a year spent post-doctoral research and then another year was a research assistant physicist Julius C. Schwinger. In 1959he was appointed assistant professor at the Faculty of Physics at Harvard University.

By 1960, James Watson moved to Harvard and resumed friendly relations with G. While Watson was interested in the processes that are associated determining the nucleotide sequence of the DNA with protein synthesis encoded by the sequence. Protein synthesis, as is known, takes place in the ribosomes - the cell structures in open g. Albert Claude 1949. Scientists have suggested that the genetic information is carried in the ribosomal DNA by using a nucleic acid unstable called messenger RNA (mRNA). In response to a request for Watson to help him identify mRNA G.gladly took up the experimental work, and his life began a long period of research in the field of molecular biology.

In 1964, G. resigned from the Faculty of Physics and became an associate professor of biophysical faculty, where he and his colleague Benno Muller - Hill became interested in the question raised by Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod. In the three years before Jacob and Monod said that genetics is not the question of how genes function, and how this action is prevented, that is, in other words, why the DNA sequence does not permanently produce the encoded proteins. The sequence of bases in DNA is copied (or transcribed) onto the mRNA by the enzyme called RNA polymerase as it moves along the DNA helix. Jacob and Monod suggested that the transcription process can be prevented in the event that the repressor molecule binds to DNA and prevents RNADNA polymerase move.

Using the bacterium Escherichia coli, and H. Muller - Hill began to investigate this problem. E. coli synthesize a number of proteins that break down the milk sugar - lactose. Protein synthesis is initiated by the so-called lac- operon in the presence of lactose; in its absence inhibits the repressor protein las operon. By 1966Both researchers have identified a repressor, and over the next four years has defined the structure and location of the operator, its position on the DNA helix to which the repressor is attached.

Currently, it is clear that the nucleotide sequence of the operator DNA region plays a key role in the process, in which a repressor operator recognizes and binds itself to them. Using methods developed by Frederick Sanger at Cambridge University, and Allan Maxam in 1973 determined the sequence of the lac - operator. Two years later, on a proposal from the Faculty visited the Soviet scientist Andrei G. MirzabekovaI began the study of specific nucleotides in the lac - operator, the most important in the process of binding. Mirzabekov and colleagues investigated the interaction of DNA with dimethyl sulfate in the presence of antibiotics, substances which reduce the strength of interaction of A and T nucleotides. Since methylated DNA splits easily in certain places, Helix of DNA was digested into fragments of variable, but fixed length.

Applying the method to study Mirzabekova lac- operon, G. Maxam and isolated DNA fragments of appropriate length using gel electrophoresis. With this method, the fragments under the influence of a weak electric current moves in the thin layer gels with different characteristic and for each speed, and being labeled with radioactive isotopes, fragments are left dark streaks on the photographic paper. This method was so effective that G.and Max were able to divide the fragments differ in length by only one base.

By 1977 G. and his colleagues determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the protein under study. Another method of determining the sequence in the meantime been developed Sanger, and both methods have quickly become fundamental in the emerging field of recombinant DNA, those. genetic engineering. Using its experience, In 1978 the firm was involved in the case " Biogen " foundation, one of the first companies specializing in the field of genetic engineering. In 1982, a year after he was elected chairman of the " Biogen " G. leaves Harvard University, in which after the release of the company returns to the end of 1984At Harvard, he continued his research on gene structure and protein synthesis in recombinant organisms.

Half of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980 and was awarded the G. Sanger " for his contribution to the definition of base sequences in nucleic acids. " The other half of Paul Berg was awarded the prize for a similar study. The work of these three scientists " has brought benefits to mankind, - said in his speech at the presentation of a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Bo G. Maelstrom - not only in the form of new fundamental knowledge, but also in the form of such an important technical solution, as the production of human hormones by bacteria. "

In addition to the Nobel Prize, G.Steel was awarded the Foundation for Molecular Biology of the US National Academy of Sciences (1968), Prize VD Mattia Institute of Molecular Biology. Grove (1976), the prize Luis and Bertha Friedman of the New York Academy of Sciences (1977), Louise Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University (1979)Annual premium Gayrdnerskogo Fund (1979), the Albert Lasker Award for Experimental Medicine (1979), Herbert A. Sauber Memorial Award of the American Society of Biochemistry (1980). He was awarded the honorary title of Chicago, Columbia and the University of Rochester. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, US National Academy of Sciences, the American Society of Biochemistry and the American Physical Society.

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